Casa is basically the current and savings account deposits. The CASA ratio shows how much deposit a bank has in the form of current and saving account deposits in the total deposit.
If the CASA ratio is higher than it means that a higher portion of the deposits have come from current and savings deposit.
This means that the bank is getting money at low cost, since no interest is paid on the current accounts and the interest paid on savings account is usually low.
Current and Saving Accounts are demand deposits and therefore pay lower interest rates compared to term deposits where the rates are higher.
In India, interest rates paid on current and savings account deposits is administered by banking regulator – the Reserve Bank of India.
Why are banks keen on gained a higher share of CASA?
Interest rate paid on Casa is much lower compared to other deposits like term deposits or recurring deposits. While banks do not pay any interest on current account, interest paid on savings account deposit is 4%.
Banks therefore make maximum effort to increase the share of Casa on their books to reduce their overall cost of deposits. HDFC Bank has the highest share of Casa to total deposits at 52%, followed by the State Bank of India at 48% and ICICI Bank at 45%.
What does Casa mean for customers?
Recently interest paid on savings account deposits is 4%. Banks pay interest on savings deposits on a daily basis rather than paying on the minimum balance maintained by them in six months.
As a result, savings account customers earn better returns compared to what they earned a year ago.
Further, interest earned on savings account deposits does not attract TDS (tax deduction at source). Interest income above 10,000 a year attracts TDS of 10% in case of term deposits. However, there is no major benefit for current account deposits, which is mainly maintained by corporates and traders.
What are the disadvantages of high CASA?
These deposits can move out of banks’ books anytime, leading to asset-liability mismatches. While in case of term deposits, banks are almost certain that the depositor may not withdraw money before the maturity of the deposit and may also renew the deposit on maturity.
Further, to finance long-term projects, banks need to have long-term liabilities on their books to avoid mismatches. Banks cannot rely on Casa deposits to fund long-term loans.